The German Electron Synchrotron (German: Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), abbreviated DESY, is a national research center in Germany which operates particle accelerators used to investigate the structure of matter. It conducts a broad spectrum of inter-disciplinary scientific research in three main areas: particle and high energy physics; photon science; and the development, construction and operation of particle accelerators. The DESY is publicly financed by the Federal Republic of Germany, the States of Germany, and the German Research Foundation (DFR). DESY is a member of the Helmholtz Association and operates at sites in Hamburg and Zeuthen. DESY's function is to conduct fundamental research. It specializes in: In addition to operating its own large accelerator facilities, DESY also provides consulting services to research initiatives, institutes and universities. It is closely involved in major international projects such as the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser, the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole and the International Linear Collider.