Consumer & Gadgets

Using laptops and similar devices safely on aircraft

The number of incidents involving damaged electronic devices on board aircraft has increased in recent years. Most of these are caused by lithium-ion batteries, which are found in laptops and other portable electronic devices.


More efficient electrodes for carbon dioxide recycling

With the ever-increasing interest in renewable energy, scientists are continuously searching for new technologies to store energy. CO2 electrolysis is a promising way to store energy while recycling carbon dioxide. By applying ...

Energy & Green Tech

A new blueprint for designing high-performance batteries

A team of scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory discovered an intriguing cooperative behavior that occurs among complex mixtures of components in electrolytes in batteries. Electrolytes ...

Energy & Green Tech

Green ammonia for the hydrogen economy

Research in the International Journal of Exergy has looked at how a novel small-scale power-to-ammonia (P2A) system might be a useful tool in the move to a hydrogen economy. The work considers the energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness ...

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Chemical thermodynamics

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Chemical thermodynamics involves not only laboratory measurements of various thermodynamic properties, but also the application of mathematical methods to the study of chemical questions and the spontaneity of processes.

The structure of chemical thermodynamics is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics. Starting from the first and second laws of thermodynamics, four equations called the "fundamental equations of Gibbs" can be derived. From these four, a multitude of equations, relating the thermodynamic properties of the thermodynamic system can be derived using relatively simple mathematics. This outlines the mathematical framework of chemical thermodynamics.

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