Energy & Green Tech

In climate push, German chemical maker swaps oil for sugar

At one of Europe's largest chemical complexes, German group Covestro is trialing the manufacture of a key product using sugar as a base material instead of oil, as the industry seeks to reduce its carbon footprint.

Energy & Green Tech

Using pulp and paper waste to scrub carbon from emissions

Researchers at McGill University have come up with an innovative approach to improve the energy efficiency of carbon conversion, using waste material from pulp and paper production. The technique they've pioneered using the ...

Electronics & Semiconductors

New sustainable method for creating organic semiconductors

Researchers at Linköping University, Sweden, have developed a new, more environmentally friendly way to create conductive inks for use in organic electronics such as solar cells, artificial neurons, and soft sensors. The ...

Energy & Green Tech

From greenhouse gas to green fuel

An integral part of the transition to green energy is sensibly utilizing the occasional surplus electricity generated by renewable sources. One possibility is using such surplus energy to produce hydrogen via electrolysis. ...

Energy & Green Tech

First battery prototype using hemoglobin developed

A team with the Chemical Institute for Energy and the Environment (IQUEMA) at the University of Cordoba has come up with a battery that uses hemoglobin as an electrochemical reaction facilitator, functioning for around 20–30 ...

Electronics & Semiconductors

New material to boost the efficiency limits of silicon solar cells

A research group from the Center for Physical Sciences and Technology (FTMC, Lithuania), together with partners from Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia) set out to synthesize new material that could potentially complement ...

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Chemical thermodynamics

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Chemical thermodynamics involves not only laboratory measurements of various thermodynamic properties, but also the application of mathematical methods to the study of chemical questions and the spontaneity of processes.

The structure of chemical thermodynamics is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics. Starting from the first and second laws of thermodynamics, four equations called the "fundamental equations of Gibbs" can be derived. From these four, a multitude of equations, relating the thermodynamic properties of the thermodynamic system can be derived using relatively simple mathematics. This outlines the mathematical framework of chemical thermodynamics.

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