Electronics & Semiconductors

A squid-inspired artificial skin that endures harsh environments

Countless hardware and software solutions created over the past decades draw inspiration from animals and natural phenomena. This includes electronic skins (e-skins), flexible and stretchable electronic circuits designed ...

Energy & Green Tech

Colorful films could help buildings, cars keep their cool

The cold blast of an air conditioner can be a welcome relief as temperatures soar, but "A/C" units require large amounts of energy and can leak potent greenhouse gases. Today, scientists report an eco-friendly alternative—a ...

Computer Sciences

A design tool to democratize the art of color-changing mosaics

A colorful new design tool developed by MIT researchers allows individuals to create polarized light mosaics that can be printed on cellophane to make data visualizations, passive light displays, mechanical animations, fashion ...


Color or colour (see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, green, blue and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates.

Because perception of color stems from the varying spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical perception of color appearance.

The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or simply color science. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as light).

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