Engineering

The era of the megalopolis: How the world's cities are merging

On November 15 2022, a baby girl named Vinice Mabansag, born at Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital in Manila, Philippines, became—symbolically—the eight billionth person in the world. Of those 8 billion people, 60% live ...

Automotive

Italian EV startup takes on US, Chinese rivals with design

Elon Musk's Tesla paved the way nearly two decades ago. Now, the global transition to fully electric vehicles is littered with startups, inspired by a new era in mobility and drawn by the lower cost of building EVs compared ...

Energy & Green Tech

Alternative to aviation fuel based on an oxygenated nanofluid

Aviation is a big user of fossil fuels and, as such, is a heavy producer of carbon emissions. Sustainability is high on the agenda. New work in the International Journal of Sustainable Aviation has reviewed the thermo-physical ...

page 1 from 15

Combustion

Combustion (English pronunciation: /kəmˈbʌs.tʃən /) or burning is the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species. The release of heat can result in the production of light in the form of either glowing or a flame. Fuels of interest often include organic compounds (especially hydrocarbons) in the gas, liquid or solid phase.

In a complete combustion reaction, a compound reacts with an oxidizing element, such as oxygen or fluorine, and the products are compounds of each element in the fuel with the oxidizing element. For example:

A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen, which is a commonly used reaction in rocket engines:

The result is water vapor.

Complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve. In reality, as actual combustion reactions come to equilibrium, a wide variety of major and minor species will be present such as carbon monoxide and pure carbon (soot or ash). Additionally, any combustion in atmospheric air, which is 78% nitrogen, will also create several forms of nitrogen oxides.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA