Computer Sciences

Plaintext ciphertext

Writing in the International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, Yu-Chi Chen of the Department Computer Science and Engineering, at Yuan Ze University, in Tauyuan, Taiwan , has revisited the concept of plaintext checkable ...

Hi Tech & Innovation

Goodyear's biodegradable concept tire regenerates its tread

Goodyear recently unveiled a tire concept that could revolutionize the auto industry. Dubbed reCharge, this concept tire would never require replacements or rotations because it regenerates its tread as needed.

Hi Tech & Innovation

Honda self-driving concept offers on and off modes

Nervous about the self driving future? You are not alone. The AAA newsroom in March reported on the AAA's annual automated vehicle survey which found that 71 percent of people were afraid to ride in fully self-driving vehicles.

Machine learning & AI

A hierarchical RNN-based model to predict scene graphs for images

Researchers at Shanghai University have recently developed a new approach based on recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to predict scene graphs from images. Their approach includes a model made up of two attention-based RNNs, ...

Computer Sciences

Teaching machines to reason about what they see

A child who has never seen a pink elephant can still describe one—unlike a computer. "The computer learns from data," says Jiajun Wu, a Ph.D. student at MIT. "The ability to generalize and recognize something you've never ...

Robotics

Researchers help robots think and plan in the abstract

Researchers from Brown University and MIT have developed a method for helping robots plan for multi-step tasks by constructing abstract representations of the world around them. Their study, published in the Journal of Artificial ...

Energy & Green Tech

Mobility concept puts electric two-wheel vehicles on elevated road

(Tech Xplore)—Cyclists and cars caught up in traffic snarls make for unhappy commuting. Some auto enthusiasts mutter bikes have no business on the street and cyclists mutter back that gas-guzzling cars have no business ...

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Concept

The word concept is used in ordinary language as well as in almost all academic disciplines. Particularly in philosophy, psychology and cognitive sciences the term is much used and much discussed. WordNet defines concept: "conception, construct (an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances)". However, the meaning of the term concept is much disputed. Philosopher Edouard Machery (2011), for example, argues that theories of concepts in philosophy and in psychology have distinct goals and therefore do not share the same understanding of the term concept. He writes (p. 247):

A concept is typically associated with a corresponding representation in a language or symbology; however, some concepts do not have a linguistic representation, which can make them more difficult to understand depending on a person's native language, such as a single meaning of a term.

There are prevailing theories in contemporary philosophy which attempt to explain the nature of concepts. The representational theory of mind proposes that concepts are mental representations, while the semantic theory of concepts (originating with Frege's distinction between concept and object) holds that they are abstract objects. Ideas are taken to be concepts, although abstract concepts do not necessarily appear to the mind as images, while some ideas appear to. Many philosophers consider concepts to be a fundamental ontological category of being.

The term "concept" is traced back to 1554–60 (Latin conceptum - "something conceived"),[citation needed] but what is today termed "the classical theory of concepts" is the theory of Aristotle on the definition of terms.[citation needed] The meaning of "concept" is explored in mainstream information science, cognitive science, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. In computer and information science contexts, especially, the term 'concept' is often used in unclear or inconsistent ways.

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