Electronics & Semiconductors

Nitride ferroelectric semiconductors for next-generation electronics

For the first time, researchers achieved single-crystalline high quality ferroelectric III-V semiconductors that can be integrated into existing platforms for a broad range of ferroelectric, electronic, optoelectronic, and ...

Engineering

World's first mass production of metalenses for visible wavelengths

Do you hate the camera bumps on the back of your smartphone? A new optical component called metalens—which was named one of the top 10 future technologies by the World Economic Forum in 2019—may be the answer. Composed ...

Engineering

Solving solar panels' dirty problem

From water-repellent to water-loving with ultraviolet (UV) light, surfaces are being developed that protect panels and glass facades from expensive and time-consuming cleanings.

Engineering

Engineers develop origami electronics from cheap, foldable paper

UC Berkeley engineers have given new meaning to the term "working paper." Using inexpensive materials, they have fabricated foldable electronic switches and sensors directly onto paper, along with prototype generators, supercapacitors ...

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Cathode ray

Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes, i.e. evacuated glass tubes that are equipped with at least two metal electrodes to which a voltage is applied, a cathode or negative electrode and an anode or positive electrode. They were discovered by German scientist Johann Hittorf in 1869 and in 1876 named by Eugen Goldstein kathodenstrahlen (cathode rays). Electrons were first discovered as the constituents of cathode rays. In 1897 British physicist J. J. Thompson showed the rays were composed of a previously unknown negatively charged particle, which was named electron.

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