Energy & Green Tech

Reducing carbon emissions with net-zero technologies

The EU intends to become climate neutral by 2050—through the European Green Deal and a tax on carbon emissions. Fraunhofer-research scientists are helping businesses capitalize on net-zero technologies for this. They improve ...


What happens to a hydrogen tank during a collision?

Vehicle emissions contribute significantly to global warming effects, although technologies such as hybrid and fully electric vehicles have been introduced in recent years to reduce vehicle emissions. Hydrogen-fueled vehicles ...

page 1 from 11

Fuel cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device. It produces electricity from fuel (on the anode side) and an oxidant (on the cathode side), which react in the presence of an electrolyte. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained.

Fuel cells are different from electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant from an external source, which must be replenished – a thermodynamically open system. By contrast, batteries store electrical energy chemically and hence represent a thermodynamically closed system.

Many combinations of fuels and oxidants are possible. A hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as its fuel and oxygen (usually from air) as its oxidant. Other fuels include hydrocarbons and alcohols. Other oxidants include chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

The principle of the fuel cell had been demonstrated by Sir William Grove in 1839, and other investigators had experimented with various forms of fuel cell. The first practical fuel cell was developed by Francis Thomas Bacon in 1959.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA