Hardware

Turning the tables into touchscreens

Scientists from Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) used a synchronized projector and camera to produce a touchscreen-like interface on a flat surface. Because the camera only registered the user's fingers when ...

Energy & Green Tech

Green roof or solar? It turns out both is best

The benefits of combining solar panel installations with green roofs has been confirmed by new research, which demonstrates significant improvements in energy production, stormwater filtration and most surprisingly, a major ...

Automotive

Using AI, cars can detect potholes in real time

The Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT) has announced the development of an 'AI-based automatic pothole detection system'. The system is designed to be installed on the windshield of a vehicle ...

Robotics

Xiaomi unveils CyberDog: A personable quadruped robot

Chinese electronics company Xiaomi has unveiled CyberDog, a quadruped robot that the company describes as more personable than others in its class. The company made its announcement on its Twitter feed, calling it a "true ...

Robotics

Insect-sized robot navigates mazes with the agility of a cheetah

Many insects and spiders get their uncanny ability to scurry up walls and walk upside down on ceilings with the help of specialized sticky footpads that allow them to adhere to surfaces in places where no human would dare ...

Electronics & Semiconductors

Making batteries live longer with ultrathin lithium

Our lives today are governed by electronics in all shapes and forms. Electronics, in turn, are governed by their batteries. However, the traditional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), that are widely used in electronic devices, ...

page 1 from 11

Surface

In mathematics, specifically in topology, a surface is a two-dimensional topological manifold. The most familiar examples are those that arise as the boundaries of solid objects in ordinary three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 — for example, the surface of a ball or bagel. On the other hand, there are surfaces which cannot be embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space without introducing singularities or intersecting itself — these are the unorientable surfaces.

To say that a surface is "two-dimensional" means that, about each point, there is a coordinate patch on which a two-dimensional coordinate system is defined. For example, the surface of the Earth is (ideally) a two-dimensional sphere, and latitude and longitude provide coordinates on it — except at the International Date Line and the poles, where longitude is undefined. This example illustrates that not all surfaces admits a single coordinate patch. In general, multiple coordinate patches are needed to cover a surface.

Surfaces find application in physics, engineering, computer graphics, and many other disciplines, primarily when they represent the surfaces of physical objects. For example, in analyzing the aerodynamic properties of an airplane, the central consideration is the flow of air along its surface.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA