Computer Sciences

Computational model decodes speech by predicting it

The brain analyzes spoken language by recognizing syllables. Scientists from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Evolving Language National Centre for Competence in Research (NCCR) have designed a computational model ...

Engineering

Brain signal measurement using printed tattoo electrodes

In 2015 Francesco Greco, head of the Laboratory of Applied Materials for Printed and Soft electronics (LAMPSe) at the Institute of Solid State Physics at Graz University of Technology, developed so-called "tattoo electrodes" ...

Engineering

Mind over body: Improving brain-computer interfaces

When people suffer debilitating injuries or illnesses of the nervous system, they sometimes lose the ability to perform tasks normally taken for granted, such as walking, playing music or driving a car. They can imagine doing ...

Engineering

Keeping up with the conversation

Most people find it difficult to concentrate on a specific voice in a busy environment, but for those who are hard of hearing it's especially challenging. Now, however, a new type of hearing aid, developed with the assistance ...

Consumer & Gadgets

CES has solutions to show for better paths to sleep

Getting enough sleep is a real issue for many; a Columbia University Department of Neurology info page referred to estimates from The Institute of Medicine, that between 50 and 70 million Americans alone have chronic sleep ...

Engineering

Engineers translate brain signals directly into speech

In a scientific first, Columbia neuroengineers have created a system that translates thought into intelligible, recognizable speech. By monitoring someone's brain activity, the technology can reconstruct the words a person ...

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study. A secondary clinical use of EEG is in the diagnosis of coma and encephalopathies. EEG used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of anatomical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT.

Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials (EP), which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a stimulus of some sort (visual, somatosensory, or auditory). Event-related potentials refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.

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