Internet

Study shows that online privacy has become a cause of inequality

As information and communications technology (ICT) systems proliferate, it has become essential for the privacy of users to be considered and safeguarded. While there are many existing ways to protect users' digital privacy, ...

Computer Sciences

A better statistical model for environmental data

By clarifying inconsistencies in published theories and devising a flexible statistical model, KAUST researchers have established a more informed and reliable basis for selecting the most suitable statistical model for environmental ...

Computer Sciences

Controlling complex systems with artificial intelligence

Researchers at ETH Zurich and the Frankfurt School have developed an artificial neural network that can solve challenging control problems. The self-learning system can be used for the optimization of supply chains and production ...

Computer Sciences

New mathematical method aids water prospecting and dam security

Scientists from Skoltech and St. Petersburg State University have proposed a mathematical method for interpreting data on underground water flows. The new technique is more efficient and provides more accuracy in imaging ...

Electronics & Semiconductors

New chip hides wireless messages in plain sight

Emerging 5G wireless systems are designed to support high-bandwidth and low-latency networks connecting everything from autonomous robots to self-driving cars. But these large and complex communication networks could also ...

Electronics & Semiconductors

Modeling MOSFET behavior using automatic differentiation

Scientists from Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) used the mathematical method called automatic differentiation to find the optimal fit of experimental data up to four times faster. This research can be applied ...

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Methodism

Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to Reverend John Wesley's evangelical and revival movement in the Anglican Church. His younger brother Charles was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. George Whitefield, another significant leader in the movement, was known for his unorthodox ministry of itinerant open-air preaching. Wesley, along with his brother and Whitefield, were branded as "Methodist" by opposing clergy within the Church of England. Initially Whitefield merely sought reform, by way of a return to the Gospel, within the Church of England, but the movement spread with revival and soon a significant number of Anglican clergy became known as Methodists in the mid eighteenth century. The movement did not form a separate denomination in England until after John Wesley's death in 1795. Some 18th century branches of Methodism include, the earliest Methodists, Calvinistic Methodists, from the work of George Whitefield and Howell Harris,, the Welsh Methodists, and the Methodism of John Wesley. The influence of Whitefield and Lady Huntingdon on the Church of England was a factor in the founding of the Free Church of England in 1844. Through vigorous missionary activity Methodism spread throughout the British Empire, and the work of Whitefield from an early time introduced Methodism to the United States, and beyond.

Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including aristocracy.[1] But the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside of organised religion at that time.[citation needed] Wesley himself thought it wrong to preach outside a Church building until persuaded otherwise by Whitefield.

Doctrinally, the branches of Methodism following the Wesleys are Arminian, while those following Harris and Whitefield are Calvinistic.[2] Wesley chose to break with the Church of England's Calvinistic position, which Whitefield remained faithful to. This caused serious strains on the relationship between Whitefield and Wesley, with Wesley becoming quite hostile toward Whitefield in what had been previously very close relations. Whitefield consistently begged Wesley to not let these differences sever their friendship and, with time, their friendship was restored, though this was seen by many of Whitefield's followers to be a doctrinal compromise. As a final testimony of their friendship, John Wesley's sermon on Whitefield's death is full of praise and affection. Methodism has a very wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Both Whitefield and the Wesleys themselves greatly valued the Anglican liturgy and tradition, and the Methodist worship in The Book of Offices was based on the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.

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