Computer Sciences

How voice assistants follow inaudible commands

An attack against speech recognition systems with manipulated audio files used to work only via a data interface. Now, all it takes is playing the secret messages via loudspeakers.

Internet

UK lawmaker challenges Facebook on political ads

An influential British lawmaker challenged Facebook's new effort to safeguard elections on Tuesday, warning that they will place a heavy constraint on the company's ability to combat misinformation.

Internet

Facebook chief hosts conservative guests amid bias debate

Facebook chief executive Mark Zuckerberg on Monday confirmed reports that he had hosted a series of dinners with right-wing figures, as the social media platform stands accused of stifling conservative voices.

Internet

Advocates fault Facebook over misleading posts by politicos

Some civil rights groups agree Facebook has made progress in addressing their concerns, but advocates are still criticizing the tech giant's reiteration that it won't remove newsworthy posts from elected officials, even if ...

Internet

Tech execs say they're acting faster on extremist content

Executives of Facebook, Google and Twitter told Congress on Wednesday that they've gotten better and faster at detecting and removing violent extremist content on their social media platforms in the face of mass shootings ...

Internet

Study finds racial bias in tweets flagged as hate speech

Tweets believed to be written by African Americans are much more likely to be tagged as hate speech than tweets associated with whites, according to a Cornell study analyzing five collections of Twitter data marked for abusive ...

Internet

After El Paso killings, renewed focus on online hate forums

Efforts to take down the 8chan website where a racist "manifesto" was posted shortly before the El Paso shooting highlight the legal and ethical difficulties in curbing online hate speech that foments violence.

Engineering

Military researchers see non-lethal role for talking lasers

Say what? Laser plasma balls that can talk? The Pentagon? How, and for what? The answer is that instead of beaming a flashing light or shouting over a loudspeaker to keep people away from sensitive areas, new technology is ...

Robotics

Robots to take 20 mn jobs, worsening inequality: study

Robots are expected to take over some 20 million manufacturing jobs worldwide by 2030, extending a trend of worsening social inequality while boosting overall economic output, a new study shows.

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Speech

Speech is the vocalization form of human communication. It is based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually >10,000 different words) vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their set of speech sound units, differ creating the existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Human speakers are often polyglot able to communicate in two or more of them. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.

A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language. Speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language, often one that differs in its vocabulary, syntax and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation called diglossia. Speech in addition to its use in communication, it is suggested by some psychologists such as Vygotsky is internally used by mental processes to enhance and organize cognition in the form of an interior monologue.

Speech is researched in terms of the speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in spoken language. Several academic disciplines study these including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, otolaryngology and computer science. Another area of research is how the human brain in its different areas such as the Broca's area and Wernicke's area underlies speech.

It is controversial how far human speech is unique in that other animals also communicate with vocalizations. While none in the wild uses syntax nor compatibly large vocabularies, research upon the nonverbal abilities of language trained apes such as Washoe and Kanzi raises the possibility that they might have these capabilities.

The origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA