Computer Sciences

Citizen science, supercomputers and AI

Citizen scientists have helped researchers discover new types of galaxies, design drugs to fight COVID-19, and map the bird world. The term describes a range of ways that the public can meaningfully contribute to scientific ...

Computer Sciences

New method to make AI-generated voices more expressive

Researchers have found a way to make AI-generated voices, such as digital personal assistants, more expressive, with a minimum amount of training. The method, which translates text to speech, can also be applied to voices ...

Computer Sciences

Model moves computers closer to understanding human conversation

An engineer from the Johns Hopkins Center for Language and Speech Processing has developed a machine learning model that can distinguish functions of speech in transcripts of dialogs outputted by language understanding, or ...

Computer Sciences

Researchers teach computer to be fluent in Finnish dialects

Computers usually understand Finnish only as the normative standard known as kirjakieli. Finnish dialects, however, create a lot of trouble when interacting with computers, since it is impossible to speak a language without ...

Internet

Facebook misidentified thousands of political ads: study

Facebook misidentified tens of thousands of advertisements flagged under its political ads policy, according to a study released Thursday, which warned that the failure could lead to political manipulation.

Internet

World weighs laws to rein in mighty algorithms

From the YouTube videos we're recommended to deciding who gets a job, algorithms wield an ever-growing influence over our lives—and policy-makers worldwide want to rein them in.

Business

Europe's battle to curb Big Tech

US tech giants Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft have been accused of not paying enough taxes, stifling competition, stealing media content and threatening democracy by spreading fake news.

Computer Sciences

Toward speech recognition for uncommon spoken languages

Automated speech-recognition technology has become more common with the popularity of virtual assistants like Siri, but many of these systems only perform well with the most widely spoken of the world's roughly 7,000 languages.

Electronics & Semiconductors

New memcapacitor devices for neuromorphic computing applications

To train and implement artificial neural networks, engineers require advanced devices capable of performing data-intensive computations. In recent years, research teams worldwide have been trying to create such devices, using ...

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Speech

Speech is the vocalization form of human communication. It is based upon the syntactic combination of lexicals and names that are drawn from very large (usually >10,000 different words) vocabularies. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. These vocabularies, the syntax which structures them, and their set of speech sound units, differ creating the existence of many thousands of different types of mutually unintelligible human languages. Human speakers are often polyglot able to communicate in two or more of them. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also provide humans with the ability to sing.

A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language. Speech in some cultures has become the basis of a written language, often one that differs in its vocabulary, syntax and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation called diglossia. Speech in addition to its use in communication, it is suggested by some psychologists such as Vygotsky is internally used by mental processes to enhance and organize cognition in the form of an interior monologue.

Speech is researched in terms of the speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in spoken language. Several academic disciplines study these including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, cognitive science, communication studies, otolaryngology and computer science. Another area of research is how the human brain in its different areas such as the Broca's area and Wernicke's area underlies speech.

It is controversial how far human speech is unique in that other animals also communicate with vocalizations. While none in the wild uses syntax nor compatibly large vocabularies, research upon the nonverbal abilities of language trained apes such as Washoe and Kanzi raises the possibility that they might have these capabilities.

The origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA