Computer Sciences

Team develops mathematical solver for analog computers

Your computer performs most tasks well. For word processing, certain computations, graphic arts and web surfing, the digital box on your desk is the best tool for the job. But the way your computer works, with its style of ...

Computer Sciences

ColorUNet: A new deep CNN classification approach to colorization

A team of researchers at Stanford University has recently developed a CNN classification method to colorize grayscale images. The tool they devised, called ColorUNet, draws inspiration from U-Net, a fully convolutional network ...

Computer Sciences

Researchers use video games to unlock new levels of AI

Expectations for artificial intelligences are very real and very high. An analysis in Forbes projects revenues from A.I. will skyrocket from $1.62 billion in 2018 to $31.2 billion in 2025. The report also included a survey ...

Computer Sciences

Finding people in video based on height, cloth color, gender

A special search approach lets you find people in surveillance video just based on their description. The RT headline read, "AI algorithm can find you in CCTV footage without using face recognition." But how? Height, gender, ...

Computer Sciences

New method peeks inside the 'black box' of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence—specifically, machine learning—is a part of daily life for computer and smartphone users. From autocorrecting typos to recommending new music, machine learning algorithms can help make life easier. ...

Automotive

Machine learning to optimize traffic and reduce pollution

Applying artificial intelligence to self-driving cars to smooth traffic, reduce fuel consumption, and improve air quality predictions may sound like the stuff of science fiction, but researchers at the Department of Energy's ...

Computer Sciences

First proof of quantum computer advantage

For many years, quantum computers were not much more than an idea. Today, companies, governments and intelligence agencies are investing in the development of quantum technology. Robert König, professor for the theory of ...

Computer Sciences

A new method to instill curiosity in reinforcement learning agents

Several real-world tasks have sparse rewards and this poses challenges for the development of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. A solution to this problem is to allow an agent to autonomously create a reward for itself, ...

Computer Sciences

New algorithm efficiently finds antibiotic candidates

If you're looking for a needle in a haystack, it's best to know what hay looks like. An international team of researchers has applied this idea to the search for new pharmaceuticals, developing a technique that reduces the ...

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Algorithm

In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related subjects, an algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, an explicit, step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, often used for calculation and data processing. It is formally a type of effective method in which a list of well-defined instructions for completing a task, will when given an initial state, proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as probabilistic algorithms, incorporate randomness.

A partial formalization of the concept began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") posed by David Hilbert in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" (Kleene 1943:274) or "effective method" (Rosser 1939:225); those formalizations included the Gödel-Herbrand-Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation 1" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936–7 and 1939.

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