Machine Learning & AI

The brain inspires a new type of artificial intelligence

Machine learning, introduced 70 years ago, is based on evidence of the dynamics of learning in the brain. Using the speed of modern computers and large datasets, deep learning algorithms have recently produced results comparable ...

Software

A new algorithm enables more realistic sound effects in VR

When we watch movies or play video games, the right sound effects can help make scenes more realistic: When a grizzled gambler rolls a silver dollar across a card table in a silver screen saloon, the sound seems to travel ...

Machine Learning & AI

Getting AI ethics wrong could 'annihilate technical progress'

An intelligent water gun that uses facial recognition to identify its targets is helping to highlight some of the emerging human rights issues surrounding artificial intelligence (AI) – an area of research that is on the ...

Machine Learning & AI

New AI tool identifies cancer outcomes using radiology reports

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have demonstrated that an artificial intelligence tool can perform as well as human reviewers—and much more rapidly—in extracting clinical information regarding changes in tumors ...

Machine Learning & AI

Eliminating bias in AI

In human beings, intelligence is no inoculation against bias and bigotry. The same holds true for computers. Intelligent machines learn about the world through the filters of human language and historical behaviour—meaning ...

Hi Tech & Innovation

What do dragonflies teach us about missile defense?

Be grateful you're not on a dragonfly's diet. You might be a fruit fly or maybe a mosquito, but it really wouldn't matter the moment you look back and see four powerful wings pounding through the air after you. You fly for ...

Robotics

Algorithm quickly finds hidden objects in dense point clouds

A new MIT-developed technique enables robots to quickly identify objects hidden in a three-dimensional cloud of data, reminiscent of how some people can make sense of a densely patterned "Magic Eye" image if they observe ...

Robotics

New energy-efficient algorithm keeps UAV swarms helping longer

A new energy-efficient data routing algorithm developed by an international team could keep unmanned aerial vehicle swarms flying—and helping—longer, report an international team of researchers this month in the journal ...

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Algorithm

In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related subjects, an algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, an explicit, step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, often used for calculation and data processing. It is formally a type of effective method in which a list of well-defined instructions for completing a task, will when given an initial state, proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as probabilistic algorithms, incorporate randomness.

A partial formalization of the concept began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") posed by David Hilbert in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" (Kleene 1943:274) or "effective method" (Rosser 1939:225); those formalizations included the Gödel-Herbrand-Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation 1" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936–7 and 1939.

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