Computer Sciences

Selecting the best features for phishing attack detection algorithms

In recent decades, phishing attacks have become increasingly common. These attacks allow attackers to obtain sensitive user data, such as passwords, usernames, credit card details, etc., by tricking people into disclosing ...


Boosting the 'brains' of computers with less wasted energy

Many internal components used in today's computers reach temperatures that are hot enough to cook a Thanksgiving meal. The heat produced by the computations can easily burn human skin and tissue – and much of the heat is ...

Machine Learning & AI

Defining blameworthiness to help make AI moral

Say 100 people live near a lake. If at least 10 of them overfish this year, the entire fish population will die out. Each assumes at least 10 others will overfish, and there won't be anything left to fish in the coming years.

Computer Sciences

Humans compress images better than algorithms, experiment finds

Your friend texts you a photo of the dog she's about to adopt but all you see is a tan, vaguely animal-shaped haze of pixels. To get you a bigger picture, she sends the link to the dog's adoption profile because she's worried ...

Machine Learning & AI

Algorithms have already taken over human decision making

I can still recall my surprise when a book by evolutionary biologist Peter Lawrence titled The Making of a Fly came to be priced on Amazon at $23,698,655.93 (plus $3.99 shipping). While my colleagues around the world must ...


A new robot for artistic grayscale painting

A team of researchers at St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University (ETU-LETI) and Ural Federal University (URFU) has recently created a new robotic setup for realistic grayscale painting. The project's lead developer, Dr. ...

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In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related subjects, an algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, an explicit, step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, often used for calculation and data processing. It is formally a type of effective method in which a list of well-defined instructions for completing a task, will when given an initial state, proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as probabilistic algorithms, incorporate randomness.

A partial formalization of the concept began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") posed by David Hilbert in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" (Kleene 1943:274) or "effective method" (Rosser 1939:225); those formalizations included the Gödel-Herbrand-Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation 1" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936–7 and 1939.

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