Security

Critical flaw demonstrated in common digital security algorithm

Cryptographic experts at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and the French national research institute for digital sciences INRIA in Paris, have demonstrated a critical security flaw in a commonly ...

Engineering

Designing a puncture-free tire

Some golf carts and lawnmowers already use airless tires and at least one major tire company produces a non-pneumatic automotive tire, but we still have long way to go before they are on every vehicle that comes off the assembly ...

Engineering

Machine learning shapes microwaves for a computer's eyes

Engineers from Duke University and the Institut de Physique de Nice in France have developed a new method to identify objects using microwaves that improves accuracy while reducing the associated computing time and power ...

Machine learning & AI

AI can now read emotions—but should it?

In its annual report, the AI Now Institute, an interdisciplinary research center studying the societal implications of artificial intelligence, called for a ban on technology designed to recognize people's emotions in certain ...

Engineering

An algorithm with an eye for visibility helps pilots in Alaska

More than three-quarters of Alaskan communities have no access to highways or roads. In these remote regions, small aircraft are a town's bus, ambulance, and food delivery—the only means of getting people and things in ...

Machine learning & AI

Monkeying about to solve problems

There are countless computer algorithms that simulate biological behavior from leaping frogs, to bat foraging, from cuckoo search to ant colony optimization. They all have something in common, the algorithm behaves like a ...

Machine learning & AI

How can we make sure that algorithms are fair?

Using machines to augment human activity is nothing new. Egyptian hieroglyphs show the use of horse-drawn carriages even before 300 B.C. Ancient Indian literature such as "Silapadikaram" has described animals being used for ...

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Algorithm

In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related subjects, an algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, an explicit, step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, often used for calculation and data processing. It is formally a type of effective method in which a list of well-defined instructions for completing a task, will when given an initial state, proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as probabilistic algorithms, incorporate randomness.

A partial formalization of the concept began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") posed by David Hilbert in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" (Kleene 1943:274) or "effective method" (Rosser 1939:225); those formalizations included the Gödel-Herbrand-Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation 1" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936–7 and 1939.

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