Energy & Green Tech

High-performance sodium ion batteries using copper sulfide

Researchers presented a new strategy for extending sodium ion batteries' cyclability using copper sulfide as the electrode material. This strategy has led to high-performance conversion reactions and is expected to advance ...

Engineering

Achieving ultra-low friction without oil additives

Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a new process for treating metal surfaces that has the potential to improve efficiency in piston engines and a range of other equipment.

Telecom

IEEE P802.3bz: New Ethernet standard ratified

(Tech Xplore)—A new Ethernet standard is born. The IEEE has set the new standard for five times the speed without disruptive cable changes, said Network World.

Energy & Green Tech

Controlling lithium metal deposits using different metal substrates

(Tech Xplore)—Cell phones, laptops, and other electronic devices that have rechargeable batteries use lithium ion batteries. Lithium batteries have a high energy density. Fewer cells are needed to power a device, which ...

Semiconductors

Applied Materials sets cobalt on path to future chips

When a global leader in providing equipment, services and software used for manufacturing semiconductors makes an announcement, industry players sit up and listen, as the technologies are going to impact market activity in ...

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Copper

Copper (pronounced /ˈkɒpər/) is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is rather soft and malleable and a freshly-exposed surface has a pinkish or peachy color. It is used as a thermal conductor, an electrical conductor, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys.

Copper metal and alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum. There may be insufficient reserves to sustain current high rates of copper consumption. Some countries, such as Chile and the United States, still have sizable reserves of the metal which are extracted through large open pit mines.

Copper compounds are known in several oxidation states, usually 2+, where they often impart blue or green colors to natural minerals such as turquoise and have been used historically widely as pigments. Copper as both metal and pigmented salt, has a significant presence in decorative art. Copper 2+ ions are soluble in water, where they function at low concentration as bacteriostatic substances and fungicides. For this reason, copper metal can be used as an anti-germ surface that can add to the anti-bacterial and antimicrobial features of buildings such as hospitals. In sufficient amounts, copper salts can be poisonous to higher organisms as well. However, despite universal toxicity at high concentrations, the 2+ copper ion at lower concentrations is an essential trace nutrient to all higher plant and animal life. In animals, including humans, it is found widely in tissues, with concentration in liver, muscle, and bone. It functions as a co-factor in various enzymes and in copper-based pigments.

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