Energy & Green Tech

A touch of zirconium to better catch the sun

Transparent conductive films that let through a broader range of the solar spectrum have been developed by KAUST and are set to increase the power conversion efficiency of perovskite-based multijunction solar cells beyond ...

Engineering

Researchers develop technique to de-ice surfaces in seconds

Airplane wings, wind turbines and indoor heating systems all struggle under the weight and chill of ice. De-icing techniques are energy-intensive, however, and often require large masses of ice to melt completely in order ...

Engineering

Kateeva coating could finally give us bendable displays

A new startup based in Menlo Park, California called Kateeva might have solved one of the problems that is keeping manufacturers from selling us portable devices with bendable displays. They've developed a coating process ...

Indium tin oxide

Indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide) is a solid solution of indium(III) oxide (In2O3) and tin(IV) oxide (SnO2), typically 90% In2O3, 10% SnO2 by weight. It is transparent and colorless in thin layers. In bulk form, it is yellowish to grey. In the infrared region of the spectrum it is a metal-like mirror.

Indium tin oxide's main feature is the combination of electrical conductivity and optical transparency. However, a compromise has to be reached during film deposition, as high concentration of charge carriers will increase the material's conductivity, but decrease its transparency.

Thin films of indium tin oxide are most commonly deposited on surfaces by electron beam evaporation, physical vapor deposition, or a range of sputter deposition techniques.

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