Computer Sciences

Designing new quantum materials on the computer

How do you find novel materials with very specific properties—for example, special electronic properties which are needed for quantum computers? This is usually a very complicated task: various compounds are created, in ...

Computer Sciences

Three questions about quantum computing and secure communications

A radically different type of computing technology under development, known as quantum computing, could in theory decode secure communications and jeopardize military communications, critical infrastructure, and financial ...

Computer Sciences

Neural networks make sense of complex electron interactions

Researchers from the Center for Materials Technologies at Skoltech have delivered a proof-of-concept demonstration of a neural network-driven method for creating a precise exchange-correlation functional interpolation, which ...

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Quantum

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of a quantity that has the same units as the Planck constant and is related to both energy and momentum of elementary particles of matter (called fermions) and of photons and other bosons. The word comes from the Latin "quantus", for "how much." Behind this, one finds the fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized", referred to as "quantization". This means that the magnitude can take on only certain discrete numerical values, rather than any value, at least within a range. There is a related term of quantum number.

A photon is often referred to as a "light quantum". The energy of an electron bound to an atom (at rest) is said to be quantized, which results in the stability of atoms, and of matter in general. But these terms can be a little misleading, because what is quantized is this Planck's constant quantity whose units can be viewed as either energy multiplied by time or momentum multiplied by distance.

Usually referred to as quantum "mechanics", it is regarded by virtually every professional physicist as the most fundamental framework we have for understanding and describing nature at the infinitesimal level, for the very practical reason that it works. It is "in the nature of things", not a more or less arbitrary human preference.

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