Computer Sciences

A neural network to extract knowledgeable snippets and documents

Every day, millions of articles are published on social media and other platforms, receiving a vast amounts of clicks and shares from users navigating the web. Many of these articles contain useful information that, if extracted, ...

Machine learning & AI

Researchers use AI to unlock the secrets of ancient texts

The Abbey Library of St. Gall in Switzerland is home to approximately 160,000 volumes of literary and historical manuscripts dating back to the eighth century—all of which are written by hand, on parchment, in languages ...

Computer Sciences

Two new attacks break PDF certification

A security issue in the certification signatures of PDF documents has been discovered by researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. This special form of signed PDF files can be used, for instance, to conclude contracts. Unlike ...

Computer Sciences

Cybersecurity researchers build a better 'canary trap'

During World War II, British intelligence agents planted false documents on a corpse to fool Nazi Germany into preparing for an assault on Greece. "Operation Mincemeat" was a success, and covered the actual Allied invasion ...

Security

Two major security vulnerabilities found in PDF files

A combined team of researchers from Ruhr-University Bochum and Munster University has found two major security vulnerabilities in PDF files. They have documented their findings with a web-in-security blogspot posting.

Computer Sciences

Researchers hide information in plain text

Computer scientists at Columbia Engineering have invented FontCode, a new way to embed hidden information in ordinary text by imperceptibly changing, or perturbing, the shapes of fonts in text. FontCode creates font perturbations, ...

Software

Microsoft patches document exploit vulnerability

(Tech Xplore)—Many malware stories take the same story line, spread when computer victims open email attachments that enable installation of malware on their devices.

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Document

The term document has more meanings in ordinary language and in scholarship. WordNet 3.1. lists four meanings (October 2011):

In Library and information science and in documentation science is "document" considered a basic theoretical construct. It is everything which may be preserved or represented in order to serve as evidence for some purpose. The classical example provided by Suzanne Briet is an antelope: "An antelope running wild on the plains of Africa should not be considered a document, she rules. But if it were to be captured, taken to a zoo and made an object of study, it has been made into a document. It has become physical evidence being used by those who study it. Indeed, scholarly articles written about the antelope are secondary documents, since the antelope itself is the primary document." (Quoted from Buckland, 1998 ). (This view has been seen as an early expression of what now is known as actor–network theory).

That documents cannot be defined by their transmission medium (such as paper) is evident because of the existence of electronic documents.

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