Engineering

New method purifies hydrogen from heavy carbon monoxide mixtures

Refining metals, manufacturing fertilizers and powering fuel cells for heavy vehicles are all processes that require purified hydrogen. But purifying, or separating, that hydrogen from a mix of other gases can be difficult, ...

Energy & Green Tech

Breakthrough opens door to low-cost green hydrogen

In a clean energy breakthrough, researchers from the University of Wollongong (UOW) and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science (ACES) have developed new electrolyzer technology that brings cost-competitive ...

Energy & Green Tech

Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma join hydrogen hub chase

Louisiana, Oklahoma and Arkansas are banding together in hopes of becoming one of four "hydrogen hubs" supported by $8 billion in last year's federal infrastructure bill, their governors announced Thursday.

Energy & Green Tech

Obtaining hydrogen from methanol: Optimized reformers

Methanol reformers convert easy-to-transport methanol into hydrogen. But conventional reformers still come with a number of drawbacks—catalyst attrition, to name but one example. An innovative methanol reformer for mobile ...

Energy & Green Tech

Rocky Mountain states to team up on hydrogen tech proposal

Four Rocky Mountain states will cooperate on developing ways to make the most abundant element in the universe, hydrogen, more available and useful as clean-burning fuel for cars, trucks and trains, the states' governors ...

Energy & Green Tech

India aims to be green hydrogen hub

India has unveiled the first part of a drive to attempt to turn the world's third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases into a "hub" for green hydrogen.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen (pronounced /ˈhaɪdrədʒən/) is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless, highly flammable diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element.

Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the universe's elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly composed of hydrogen in its plasma state. Elemental hydrogen is relatively rare on Earth. Industrial production is from hydrocarbons such as methane with most being used "captively" at the production site. The two largest uses are in fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production mostly for the fertilizer market. Hydrogen may be produced from water by electrolysis at substantially greater cost than production from natural gas.

The most common isotope of hydrogen is protium (name rarely used, symbol H) with a single proton and no neutrons. In ionic compounds it can take a negative charge (an anion known as a hydride and written as H−), or as a positively-charged species H+. The latter cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds always occur as more complex species. Hydrogen forms compounds with most elements and is present in water and most organic compounds. It plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. As the only neutral atom with an analytic solution to the Schrödinger equation, the study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.

Hydrogen is important in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals, complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks. Hydrogen is highly soluble in many rare earth and transition metals and is soluble in both nanocrystalline and amorphous metals. Hydrogen solubility in metals is influenced by local distortions or impurities in the crystal lattice.

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