Human lung-inspired sensor monitors nitrogen dioxide in real-time

A research team has developed a human lung-inspired graphene-metal organic framework hybrid gas sensor, which can monitor extremely low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide at the level of one billionth in real-time. This study ...

Energy & Green Tech

Researchers design battery prototype with fiber-shaped cathode

In a new study, North Carolina State University researchers made a cathode in the shape of a thread-like fiber. The researchers were then able to use the fiber to create a zinc-ion battery prototype that could power a wrist ...

Energy & Green Tech

Alternative to aviation fuel based on an oxygenated nanofluid

Aviation is a big user of fossil fuels and, as such, is a heavy producer of carbon emissions. Sustainability is high on the agenda. New work in the International Journal of Sustainable Aviation has reviewed the thermo-physical ...

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Surface area

Surface area is the measure of how much exposed area a solid object has, expressed in square units. Mathematical description of the surface area is considerably more involved then the definition of arc length of a curve. For polyhedra (objects with flat polygonal faces) the surface area is the sum of the areas of its faces. Smooth surfaces, such as a sphere, are assigned surface area using their representation as parametric surfaces. This definition of the surface area is based on methods of infinitesimal calculus and involves partial derivatives and double integration.

General definition of surface area was sought by Henri Lebesgue and Hermann Minkowski at the turn of the twentieth century. Their work led to the development of geometric measure theory which studies various notions of surface area for irregular objects of any dimension. An important example is the Minkowski content of a surface.

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